Saturday, September 24, 2005

An A-Z of mainstream and 'underground' computer and internet terminology

Saturday, September 24, 2005

I began writing this article late in 1999 when something called 'warez' first piqued my curiosity. For a long while I was fascinated with its intricate modus operandi and associated culture and this is what led me to set about documenting as much of it as possible. I'm no longer such a keen observer, but have in any case revamped the entries below to keep them current. I will continue to supplement them with any new definitions I feel necessary to add, though these will likely lean towards more conventional computer vocabulary.

Have I missed anything out? Have I got something completely wrong? If so, please let me know so I can add it to the list or make the necessary alterations.

This page was last updated on 30th June 2006.

# - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

#

0-Day (or zero day) - Usually refers to pirated software or other media e.g. music and movies made available on the same day their official counterparts are released to the public. Also used in conjunction with 'exploits' which are unleashed on the same day a software vulnerability is announced.

0-Sec - While it is clearly physically impossible to make warez (i.e. pirate) releases available to the masses the very second they are cracked, 'pre-ers' would have access to them within such a short time frame. Once distributed beyond topsites, releases are no longer 0-sec so the term is really little more than hyperbole.

A

Ace File - A compressed archive created with WinAce. These can be comprised of either single standalone .ace files or a series of files referred to as a spanned, or multi-volume, archive. The latter variety are used to transport large archives using limited capacity media, or to transfer large chunks of data a bit at a time via a slow internet connection.

Active List - Similar to a mailing list, but uses ICQ to send instant messages to subscribers.

ADSL (aka broadband) - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, in other words, high speed internet access. Generally entry level ADSL connections can achieve download speeds that are ten times faster than that of a 56k modem.

Alpha - Software receives this label when it is in the very early stages of development. Usually full of bugs, so don't touch it with a barge pole!

Anti-Leech - A system that uses web scripts to redirect users to downloadable content without revealing the true location of the files stored on a given server. The goal is to deter people from directly linking to downloads from an external web site to prevent them from harvesting files without visiting the host site. In other words, anti-leech systems are brought into play to stifle the large scale theft of web site content.

Appz - Short for applications, for example, Microsoft Office XP, Photoshop etc. The z differentiates official, legitimate releases from illegal, pirate ones.

ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange: a character set that emerged out of the necessity to convey digital information via computers prior to the existence of images and more sophisticated text formats. To view an example refer to any nfo file past or present - the structure remains identical as much to honour a tradition as to communicate information in the most simplistic way possible.

ASF File - An acronym for Advanced Systems Format; Microsoft's proprietry video/audio wrapper, specifically designed for the purpose of streaming digital content over the internet. As speed of transfer is the top priority, quality is usually inferior to that of non-streamable media.

B

Backup - In theory, the word backup refers to a replica of an original CD created for the purpose of preservation and made available by a supposedly reputable supplier. More likely, however, the term is used in a feeble attempt to make illegal software look more legitimate to avoid the watchful gaze of the authorities. Personal backups can also be made on an individual basis using CD/DVD cloning software such as Alcohol 120% and CD/DVD Clone. The authors of these tools are able to remain operational because they work on the premise that their software should only be brought into play to allow people to make duplicates of discs they legally own.

Banner Site - Password and username restricted FTP site. To aquire the correct login details you must click on several banners and search for designated keywords within the web pages which follow. Sometimes you are required to register an account at various subscription based sites because these keywords are otherwise inaccessible. The owner of the FTP site procures payment from these affiliates on a per click or per registration basis.

Beta - Refers to an unpolished, incomplete piece of software that is released to the public for bug testing as a quality control measure.

Bin File - An image of a CD or DVD contained within a single, uncompressed archive file. As these comprise the entire contents of a given disc, their size tends to match the capacity of the format e.g. 700mb for a CD. Often they occupy more space than would the contents of the disc alone if simply copied and pasted to the hard drive. This is because it is necessary to store extra information relating to the data structure of a disc alongside its actual content so it can be referenced when burnt. Bin files can be extracted or burnt with or without an accompanying 'cue' file using a variety of image manipulation tools such as CD-R Win, ISO Buster, Ultra ISO, Nero and so on.

BSA - An acronym for Business Software Alliance, an organisation responsible for enforcing anti-piracy litigation. Similar groups in charge of controlling software theft include SIIA, SPA and ELSPA.

BSOD - Many people read about BSODs on forums and assume that they're being insulted. Fear not, there is no need to get paranoid. It is actually an acronym for 'Blue Screen Of Death', a serious Windows error message which is reported in white text on a blue background. These can occur for a multitude of reasons (old Bill likes to keep us guessing!) and are the bane of Windows user's lives.

Bulletin Board - A virtual meeting place on the web similar to a chat room albeit not in real time. One person leaves a message, then others come along, read it and add a reply. Each separate discussion is called a new 'thread' and has its own link and web page associated with it for organisational purposes. Whenever a new topic is created, the older topics are pushed one place downwards in the list. Whenever someone replies to an older topic it is brought back to the top of the list to make it easy to see at a glance which ones are 'active'. See the bulletin board tutorial for more detailed information.

Burn-proof - CD/DVD writer technology designed and owned solely by Sanyo, which helps to avoid buffer underrun errors. The technique involves suspending the burning process whenever the CD/DVD writer's buffers are empty and resuming the transfer only when the buffers once again contain data which is available to be written.

BW Clone - An nfo site label which refers to software releases made using the CD/DVD duplication tool Blind Write.

C

C?? File - An extension indicating a file is a constituent of a compressed and spanned ACE archive.

Carding - Using illegally acquired credit cards to purchase goods or withdraw money.

CD Key - A serial number most often consisting of a long string of both letters and numbers. Used in place of 'serial number' when referring to games or operating systems such as Windows, originally because they were only issued on the boxes of CD-based software. Without a valid, unique CD key you will not be able to play certain games, or at the very least, you will not be able to play these games online.

CDM - An acronym for 'CD maxi-single', a term used in reference to the MP3 release scene. Designates an extended length CD single, usually containing between two and five tracks.

CD-R - A recordable (hence the 'R') compact disc capable of storing a limited (in the region of 730mb max) quantity of computer, audio or video data. CD-Rs can be accessed by any CD drive, however, a CD writer is required to roll your own. You should note that 'R' discs can only be written to once.

CDS - An acronym for 'CD single', a term used in reference to the MP3 release scene. CD singles are recordings consisting of one or two tracks.

CD-RW - A writable CD that can be formatted and re-used many times.

CGI Scripts - An ellipsis for 'common gateway interface', a scripting language mostly used to create online dynamic web content such as bulletin boards and guest books. Other less useful (annoying even) purposes CGI scripts effectuate include making affiliate programs and voting 'click-throughs' possible. Whenever you click on a link with a '?cgi' reference you are either directed to a sponsor's website, a voting gateway or an anti-leech protected file.

CLSC - A warez scene release tag indicating a movie is a 'classic' rather than a 'coming to a cinema near you, soon' title.

Coaster - If you aren't careful when burning recordable CDs or DVDs it's very easy to make mistakes that will render them useless. If a write-once CD or DVD has been corrupted, the damage is irreversible and all it is fit for is a drinks mat aka a coaster.

Codec - A piece of software that tells your computer how to manipulate an audio or video file in order to present it as intended by the author. Different file formats utilise different codecs and some produce better results than others in terms of file size, media quality, compatibility and so forth.

Cookie - A tiny text file (usually less than 1kb) written to your hard drive when you visit certain web sites. These are used to store your identity so that you can access members-only areas of a site without having to re-enter a username and password each time, or to retain your personalised settings so that they are available right away the next time you visit.

Courier - Someone who is involved in the logistics of transfering new warez releases directly from release group headquarters (aka topsites) to affiliate topsites, or dump sites, from which FXP groups further distribute the software. Couriers are allotted varying degrees of access to releases dependent on their reliability, efficiency, social connections etc. - some are granted permission to enter the 'pre' directories of topsites to allow them to relay releases to affiliate topsites, while others can only enter dump sites situated lower down the distribution network. Those with access to pre directories are known as 'pre-ers' rather than couriers, though you will often hear the terms used interchangeably.

Crack - An executable file used to transform a program's status from shareware to full version software. Also used with reference to replacement main executable files that serve to bypass software copyright protection mechanisms.

Cracked - A seemingly odd nfo site label (you would expect any software appearing on an nfo site to be cracked). Warez releases are tagged in this way to indicate that a previous release of the same software had a defective crack. The current release is presumed to be a corrective measure.

CRC Error - These can occur when you try to decompress a file that has become corrupt during the transfer process, usually as a result of too much resumption (solutions and advice relating to CRC errors are available elsewhere in my blog).

Credits - A figure representing the amount of data you are permitted to download from a ratio FTP site. The more credits you have, the more software you are allowed to download. The number of credits awarded is dependent on the quantity of data uploaded.

Cue File - Tiny, plain text file used by CD/DVD writing software to determine how the data contained within a bin image file should be processed and burnt in order to produce a working replica of the original media it was extracted from.

D

DAP - A quick way of referring to 'Download Accelerator Plus', a free download manager that claims to speed up file transfers by up to three hundred per cent. This is made possible by making multiple connections to the same files and locating the most responsive servers from which to download. DAP is paid for by revolving advertising banners, and most noteworthy - like Gozilla, Flashget and Getright - it supports the resume function.

DAT File - File format used for encoding VCD movies, identical in quality and size to MPG. Not automatically recognised by all movie players without first re-assigning your file associations.

DC - An abbreviation for the Dreamcast, Sega's latest (and now discontinued) console incarnation.

DC - An acronym used in reference to movie releases. Stands for 'director's cut'.

Decompression - Unpacking/extracting files stored in a compressed archive. Unpacked files inevitably occupy more hard drive space than the original archive. Compression allows you to conveniently group together many files and reduce their size making them easier to distribute and store.

Deleter - Someone who deliberately wipes out the files stored on public, anonymous FTP sites (known as pubs) for a variety of reasons.

DoS Attack - Denial of Service attacks are malicious attempts to block legitimate access to web services by flooding them with useless data packets.

Dox - A condensed form of the word 'documents'. The 'cs' of 'docs' is replaced with an 'x' in accordance with the hacker / warez tradition of butchering the English language.

Distro - A concise means of referring to a distribution FTP site. These are huge storage areas that act as a springboard for the transfer of new releases. Where the ones containing illegal releases are concerned, their whereabouts are never publicly disclosed to aid their survival rate. You can think of them as one of the major sources from which software emanates - not the top of the distribution hierarchy, but key players nevertheless.

Direct Downloads - Links to actual files rather than web site pages containing further information.

DivX - The name of the encoding process used to convert video streams into a very high quality AVI video format. The resulting files are much more manageable than their raw (or uncompressed) brethren in terms of file size to facilitate their transfer of over the net.

DIZ File - An ellipsis for description. A very brief text file found inside the compressed archives used to distribute software. They state the title of the software, the number of files that makes up the set and the group/publisher who released it. Much like a miniature nfo file, though designed to be scanned and manipulated by FTP server software rather than humans.

DMG File - Apple Mac file compression format. A contraction of Disk iMaGe.

Dongle - A hardware-based copyright protection device which must be plugged into the computer on which the protected software is installed before it will run. Used very little nowadays as they are costly to develop and easily circumvented by crackers.

Download (or DL) - Copying files from a web server or FTP site to your computer via the internet.

Dump site - The second link in the illegal software release scene distribution chain. Like topsites, dumpsites are fast, private, FXP-enabled FTP sites. Releases are transferred from topsites to dump sites and then onto public, anonymous FTP sites.

Dupe - When the release groups get their mitts on the latest piece of software, their aim is to be the first group to crack it. Obviously they can't all be the first so inevitably many alternative versions of the same game or application are churned out. The version that hits the distribution chain first takes all the glory and is known as the 'proper' release. Whatever remains are termed dupes, short for duplicates.

DVD - Shorthand for Digital Versatile Disc. DVDs are visually indistinguishable from CDs, though use higher density storage protocols to dramatically increase their potential capacity. A typical DVD can hold between 4.38 and 8.54 gigabytes of data.

DVD-R - Writable DVD media. Can be read using a DVD-ROM drive, but only written to using a DVD writer.

DVD-RW - DVD media that can be formatted and written to approximately 1000 times prior to replacement. Limited to a capacity of 4.7 GB.

E

Easter Egg - A game, message or presentation hidden in a piece of software activated using a specific key configuration sequence. What more can I say? Programming can be a tedious job.

Emulator - An application that simulates another computer system or console using a PC. Long-dead, vintage systems can be 'recreated' without the need to buy the - often difficult to acquire and expensive - original hardware.

EP - An ellipsis for 'extended play', a term used in reference to the MP3 release scene. An EP is defined as any recording longer than a single - yet shorter than a full album - usually containing four to six tracks.

F

FAQ - Stands for Frequently Asked Questions, an inventory of questions with subsequent answers to common quandaries.

FAW - Abbreviation for 'Files Anywhere', a popular web storage service.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - The method used to transfer files from one computer to another via the internet.

Final - An nfo site label indicating that a release is not a beta version. Often used if the same warez group releases a beta as well as the finished game or application.

Fix - Not all warez releases work - after all pobody's nerfect! Whereas the original developers of a game would call something that corrects their initial mistakes, a 'patch', the release groups are much more honest about it; in contrast, to them it is a 'fix'.

Flaming - A general net term for 'verbally' attacking someone. This can be done via email, web forum, chat room or any medium that facilitates electronic communication.

Freedrive - Now defunct, virtual, hard drive storage area on the web which was once relied upon very heavily by the http file swapping community. Several years after the service came into operation a monthly subscription fee was introduced, hence the dramatic exodus of uploaders.

Freeware - Unrestricted software that is downloaded from the net and is completely free to use. Often paid for using advertising or spyware unfortunately.

FTP Client/Browser - A program used to access, upload and download data from FTP sites.

FXP - The art of transferring data from one FTP site to another using the connection speed of the slower of the two computers - see my FXP tutorial.

G

Gamez - Pretty self-explanatory this one. The z differentiates official, legitimate releases from illegal ones.

Getright - One of the best and longest established download managers available.

GI File - GI stands for Global Image; yet another proprietary archive format used to store the contents of audio and data discs (as if we needed any more!). GI image files can be burnt directly using either Sonic Record Now or Primo DVD. Alternatively it is possible to convert them to the more flexible ISO format using Magic ISO Maker, Ultra ISO or ISO Buster and then burn the output to disc via your favourite writing software as usual.

Gold - A piece of software is said to have 'gone gold' when the final version is complete and it is ready to ship to the public. If you want to keep an eye on the latest game releases visit Games Tracker.

Gozilla - Another excellent download manager, one of the top three for the Windows platform in fact.

H

Hacking - Gaining access to a remote computer without the authorisation to do so, usually for the purposes of stealing confidential information or the malicious destruction of data. An older definition of the word alludes to the modification of software.

Hacks - This term falsely gives the impression that something destructive or malicious is involved. This isn't the case; a hack is a customised piece of programming code or hardware designed to improve the functionality or appearance of a piece of software or equipment. In the context of forum software, for instance, the 'quick reply' hack (one of the most popular ever created) appends a text box and submit button to the foot of forum threads to allow members to reply to them without having to visit a separate reply page.

Hammering - Repeatedly trying to access an FTP site using an FTP client or download manager.

HTTP - Stands for 'Hypertext Transfer Protocol'. The method you use to view a web page. Always comes before the address of a website in your URL bar.

I

ICQ - Derives from the term 'I Seek You'. A program used for real time chat, instant messaging and transferring files over the internet.

Internal release - A release (usually a movie) intended to be kept within the confines of the group who produced it. Because these releases do not conform to scene specifications they are not given a mention on scene news sites or traded for credits.

IP Address - A series of numbers separated by dots used to identify computers on the Internet.

IRC - Stands for 'Internet Relay Chat'. Used for real-time chat and transferring files over the internet. One of the earliest forms of instant messaging. See the IRC tutorial for more information.

ISO - A single file image containing the entire contents of a CD or DVD. ISO is a generic warez term used to indicate that all the multimedia components and other extras of a game or application are uncut, thereby distinguishing them from 'rips'. Not to be confused with .iso images since warez ISO releases generally make use of the bin/cue format. See the ISO tutorial for more information.

IVTC - Condensed shorthand for 'inverse telecine', the art of reducing the frame rate of movies from 30 to 24 frames per second. The goal is twofold - to reduce the file size of the movie making it less cumbersome, and to ensure that it conforms to scene movie ripping standards.

J

Java - A programing language used to create applications known as applets, which can either be used offline (or at least independently of your web browser) or be embedded into web pages for online use. Examples include chat applets, virtual hard drive interfaces and file sharing clients.

Javascript - A scripting language similar to HTML code used to add functionality to web pages or bring them to life with flashy effects. These can include animation, menus, buttons, pop-ups and so on.

K

Key Generator - An executable utility capable of creating a valid - though fraudulent - serial number, often from a specified username. These are specific to particular applications or utilities, so a serial number created with one key generator will only work with the program for which it was developed.

Kiddie - An nfo site label referring to children's software releases i.e. educational titles or games designed specifically for under sevens (or thereabouts).

L

Lamer - An annoying and hackneyed general derogatory term used within online communities to insult people.

Leeching - Downloading files without giving anything back in return, or copying other people's links.

Leet/l33t/1337 speak - Take one perfectly intelligent, legible English sentence, lightly sprinkle with an assortment of numbers which vaguely resemble letters and you have the makings of an elite or 'leet' sentence. To complete the ensemble, splurge your creation out into the electronic medium of your choice and leave to boil. Soon enough other cerebrally limited creatures of your ilk will gather round to pat you on the back for being devilishly cunning. Some may even contribute their own witticisms if they are feeling particularly creative.

It is thought that leet-speak emerged as a way of bypassing the text censors of IRC or bulletin board systems, or as a means of facilitating communication between close-knit, secretive groups. Initially leet-speak would have baffled outsiders and so provided a useful mode of conveying a message intending for a limited audience.

Limited - A term used in reference to movie releases. 'Limited' movies are ones that are shown in five hundred or fewer cinemas.

Lost Race - See 'won race'.

LP - An acronym for 'long play', a term used in reference to the MP3 release scene, designating a recording of full length i.e. a full album CD.

M

MD - Shorthand for 'mini disk', a term used in reference to the MP3 release scene.

MDF - File extension sported by Alcohol 120% CD/DVD image files. Also a kind of particle board used to make cheap furniture. Downloads of the latter are harder to come by - Ikea or MFI would be a safer bet if you're in the market for a new cabinet.

MDS - A kind of initiation file used by the cloning tool, Alcohol 120%, to determine how to process and burn a proprietary MDF image file. Akin to bin's little brother, cue.

Mirror - An exact copy of a web site stored on a different server. Using multiple locations for web sites allows the site to be accessed using a different address if the main site is removed, hacked or becomes unavailable due to technical difficulties. Limited bandwidth FTP sites are often mirrored to aid the distribution of ISO images e.g. Linux distros.

Modchip - Very common web site sponsor found on sites of dubious legality. They are especially nonchalant where the site contents of their affiliates is concerned seeing as they are hardly lilly-white themselves - their products represent one of the 'grey areas' of the law. Modchips are small pieces of electronic circuitry that allow copied games to be played on games consoles. If a console has been fitted with a Modchip it is said to have been 'chipped'.

MP3 File - The most popular, near CD quality, compressed music file format. Average track size is between 3 and 4 megabytes compared with the 40-ish megabytes an uncompressed wave format (.wav) track would occupy.

MPG - An abbreviation used to group together a set of standards for encoding digital audio-visual streams in a compressed format. The protocol for structuring such files was developed by a group of 350-ish people collectively known as the Moving Picture Experts Group.

Multi Web Space Faker - A tool once used by file sharers to create lots of free web space accounts simultaneously.

N

Name Zero - An organisation that at one time offered free web site domain names. The main drawbacks were that you had to put up with a very bulky banner residing at the bottom of your pages and the fact that you never actually owned your chosen address. Name Zero counted on you becoming so attached to your loaned URL that you would be willing to pay over the odds to have ownership transferred to yourself once the trial period had expired. These days domain names are so cheap to register that free ones aren't such a catch unless you're a real miser. Go Daddy are a tough act to follow if you're in the market for a new domain name.

Newsgroups - Virtual meeting places assembled for the purpose of discussing particular topics. More than likely there exists at least one newsgroup devoted to any hobby or interest you care to name. The exchange of messages takes place via the Network News Transfer Protocol, and conversations can be tracked using an email client, dedicated news reader application or even via the web. Refer to the newsgroup tutorial for further information.

NFO File - Short for info or information; a basic text file containing all the pertinent details relating to a particular release, such as number of files, release date, copy protection system employed, installation instructions etc. There exists a time-honoured tradition of decorating nfo files using ASCII art - this allows release groups to stamp their personal identity onto their work and make them stand out from the crowd.

NFO Fix - Sometimes if inaccurate information is provided in an nfo file a group will release a new one to set the record straight.

Nuked - A release is said to have been nuked if either it is completely unplayable or it contravenes the rules and regulations laid down by the relevant governing consortium. Usually when this happens another group re-releases the software or movie, preferably within 48 hours of the original. Providing these replacements abide by the release rules, and function as intended, they are known as 'proper' releases. Complete re-releases are avoided if a simple 'fix' can remedy the problem.

O

OEM - An acronym for Original Equipment Manufacturer. OEM software titles are repackaged versions of the full retail product. They are often re-branded to suit the needs of the particular vender and are much more reasonably priced because they lack excessive packaging and a hard copy of the manual.

OST - An acronym for original soundtrack. Used in connection with the accompanying music of a movie or TV show.

P

Patch - We all know games and applications aren't perfect. When they are released we would hope that they have been thoroughly tested for bugs and incompatibility problems, but you can guarantee that many of these will still slip through the quality control net. Once the program is released to the general public, the bug reports start to flood in. A patch is an executable 'sticky plaster' which takes these known problems into account and attempts to apply fixes to resolve them. A patch can remedy incompatibility issues, prevent crashes or improve the performance of a piece of software. Phishing - Speculative email sent to usually random people with the aim of deceiving them into visiting phony web sites or parting with their cash. Such messages often masquerade as genuine public safety warnings from legitimate companies you are likely to have registered an account with e.g. eBay or Pay Pal, and will encourage you to enter your username and password into a form to 'verify' that you haven't been a victim of fraud. Herein lies the irony - any details entered into a fake web site will be passed along to scam artists, not your bank or an online retailer.

Phreaking - Using a computer to discover the inner, secret workings of telephone systems in order to exploit them i.e. to make free calls or have calls charged to someone else's account.

Piracy - The replication and distribution of movies, audio or computer software via physical means e.g. on CD or DVD, or by way of digital transmission over the internet. Regardless of whether or not money changes hands, piracy is a serious criminal offense punishable by a fine or even imprisonment.

PM - Stands for private message. Much like email except they are passed back and forth behind the scenes of web forums. Unlike public posts they are only intended to be viewed by pre-selected recipients.

Pop-ups - Irritating browser windows triggered automatically when you visit badly designed, amateurish web sites - that includes plenty of supposedly respectable corporate ones! The vast majority of pop-ups are easily blocked by modern web browsers providing this feature is enabled.

Port - A term often - but by no means exclusively - used in reference to FTP sites. Port numbers are an essential extension of the addresses used to access remote servers and facilitate the routing of data through various protocols. If, for example, the port number of an FTP site isn't specified, the default value of 21 will automatically be utilised. Each remotely accessible aspect of your computer is assigned with a port number. Your email POP and SMTP servers have port numbers, your ICQ interface uses another port number, as do any file sharing clients you may have installed.

Pre - Short for pre-release: the name given to a warez title which has been packed and tested, but not yet distributed beyond topsites.

Pron - A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away someone posted a request for porn on a bulletin board, only because of a typing error, what he ended up asking for was 'pron'. Since then this has become a ubiquitous, running joke and so is now deliberately misspelt for comic effect. Browse through enough web forums and you will also come across the variation 'pr0n', with a zero instead of an 'oh'. Another typo I expect; zero and 'oh' are very close together on QWERTY keyboards after all.

Alternative etymology: the word porn was deliberately mangled to evade IRC-based text censors, or as a way of clearly labeling x-rated content without it being identified as such by network-scanning bots or human administrators.

Proper - If a release is deemed to be unplayable or it breaks the rules of conduct it is abandoned (or 'nuked'). If another group re-releases the software, thereby ironing out all the problems, their replacement release is said to be the 'proper' version. This tag will appear alongside the title of the game on nfo sites to make it clear who gained the credits for releasing a particular title.

Proxy - A third party server that acts as an anonymous go-between whenever you request a web page or contact a remote server. The message from your computer is first passed through the proxy server before being relayed to the final destination. This makes it appear as though the request emanated from the IP address of the proxy server rather than yourself. Proxies can be employed for the purpose of maintaining your privacy online or to bypass IP address based restrictions that prevent you from accessing particular sites. Much more detailed information on this subject is available in my anonymity tutorial.

PSX - A quick way of referring to the Sony Playstation. PSX2 and PSX3 obviously refer to the subsequent generations of the Playstation system.

Pub - A free for all FTP site where anonymous access is permitted. Refer to the FTP/FXP section of my FAQ or FXP tutorial for further information.

Pub Scanner - Someone who scours the net for anonymous access FTP sites, which permit the creation and deletion of files. Once found these are exploited by uploading software for others to share.

Pub Stealer - Someone who posts the IP address of a public FTP site which they themselves did not build. Some pub stealers justify this by claiming that the elitism of private FXP groups discriminates against those people who do not have access, yet others simply post other people's 'work' to try to claim the credit for themselves. Either way, pub stealers are despised by the FXP groups and praised by those who would otherwise not have access to them.

Pubstro - A hacker comes along and illegally gains entry to a computer connected to the internet (duh, that's the most common definition of the term isn't it!). He or she then sets it up as an FTP server, creates a username and password for themselves and proceeds to upload data to it. The resulting 'hacked pub' is known as a pubstro. These are kept totally hush-hush because they are like gold dust in that they only present themselves once in a blue moon. Software is transferred from pubstros to non-FXP-able pubs, which are subsequently advertised. It's all about protecting the source and 'spreading the wealth' - large oaks from little acorns grow and all that malarkey. Nevertheless, creating pubstros is extremely controversial as it involves hacking, rather than relatively harmless squatting (as is the case with pubs). For this reason posting pubstros is forbidden on many FXP forums.

Pub Tagging - When a public FTP site is discovered by an FXP group they will name a directory after themselves. This serves as a calling card to let other groups know that the hard drive space has already been claimed and will soon be filled. Doing so avoids duplicate uploads and disputes over the 'ownership' of a pub.

Q

Quarantine - Viruses are often moved to a quarantined or protected area of a hard drive before it is decided how they will be dealt with. While they reside in this isolated area of a drive they pose no risk to your data.

QuickTime - Apple's own proprietary movie format which comprises text, animation, video and sound. The file extensions .qt, .mov or .moov indicate that a file has been created using the QuickTime format. Such files can either be viewed using the official Apple player or the much more versatile, multi-platform VideoLAN Client.

R

Rar File - Either a self-contained, single compressed archive or the first file in a series of compressed archives (the one you double click to decompress all the files simultaneously). Usually decompressed using a program called Winrar on the Windows platform (although WinAce can also handle the task remarkably well). On the Mac side UnRarX is equally capable.

Ratio - Two numbers separated by a semi-colon. Indicates how much data you must upload to an FTP site before you are permitted to download anything.

Ratio Buster - An ancient, official Microsoft DOS program that allows you to specify the size of an empty file. Many moons ago these pseudo-files were uploaded to ratio sites to gain credit at a much faster rate than usual.

RCNT - A scene release tag used to indicate that a movie is a 'recent' as opposed to a classic title. Likely used in the case of remakes. Otherwise pretty much redundant I'd imagine.

Real Proper - A rare nfo site label used to indicate that a release intended to correct the previous mistakes of the same or another group did nothing of the sort, and so had to be replaced with a proper proper release.

Reget - Yet another free download manager. At one time the only obvious advantage this one offered over Getright and Gozilla was that in a few mouse clicks you could add all the linked files on a selected web page to the download queue in one go - a huge time saver where image repositories are concerned. The interface has been translated into many different tongues so if English is not your first language this may be a better option for you.

Reg File - Tiny text file with a .reg extension used to add essential configuration details to the registry of Windows operating systems.

Release Group - A collaborative crew of talented programmers involved in cracking and/or ripping software or re-encoding and initiating a distribution chain for leaked audio or movies. The incentives for doing so are numerous and diverse, though the principal ones include inter-group competition, the pride garnered from successfully bypassing a complicated copyright protection mechanism, social interaction with like-minded individuals and so on.

Request - A plea for help in finding a piece of software, a movie, an MP3 file or whatever. Usually posted on web forums, newsgroups, in IRC channels etc. Not a welcome sight within most law-abiding communities as fulfilling requests constitutes aiding and abetting piracy and is liable to lead to legal repercussions, or at the very least, the closure of the organisation involved. Suppressing requests is not the challenge it once was now that peer to peer software, by and large, makes them redundant.

Resume - The ability to stop and start downloading/uploading a file whenever you choose without having to start again from the beginning.

Rip - Pirate software that has had all the non-essential gubbins removed making it less cumbersome to transfer via the internet. Movies, music and speech are typical casualties, though these can be re-applied much like patches if the user so wishes. Rips are a dying breed in the age of high speed internet connections and BitTorrenting (the BitTorrent protocol serves content from user's own computers rather than a central storage area).

Raped - A warez release is branded with this term if it has been damaged beyond repair during the ripping process. Used interchangeably with 'nuked'. The political correctness police clearly haven't infiltrated warez communities yet!

RM File - Shorthand for Real Media, an unhelpfully inaccessible, proprietary video file format. Can be played back using either the spamfest that is the official Real Player client or the more minimalist, Real Alternative media player derivative. Video clips produced using this format are not of the highest quality, but do have the advantage of a relatively small file size and are endowed with the streamability factor.

ROM - Software-based 'dump' of a game originally designed to run on a console or an arcade machine. Played on a computer via emulation software such as MAME or SNES9x. On the whole this is done to breathe new life into antiquated - and therefore inaccessible - platforms, though it is also possible to mimic more contemporary hardware.

RSS - Acronym for RDF (resource description framework) Site Summary; a means of syndicating web site content so it can be viewed beyond the confines of the author's home page e.g. from within news clients or via feeds inserted into similarly themed sites.

S

Screener - A movie release boasting very high quality video and sound, usually ripped from promotional videos.

SE - Acronym used in reference to DVD releases. Stands for 'special edition'.

Serial - A valid username and code number combination (or just the code on its own) used to register a shareware program or activate a retail product, thereby removing any restrictions imposed. Can be found on serial database web sites or in the accompanying nfo file of a particular piece of software.

SFV File - See the ISO section of my FAQ.

Shareware - Try-before-you-buy software downloaded from the net or distributed via computer magazine cover discs.

Shovelware - Extra junk bundled with retail software to fill the disc capacity, making it appear that you're getting more for your money.

Slashdot Effect - Slashdot is an immensely popular technology discussion and information web site. Whenever a site is referenced in a Slashdot article it is rapidly inundated with visitors. Often this results in the site becoming inaccessible as it can not cope with the enormous surge in traffic. When this happens the site in question is said to have been Slashdotted or /.ed for short.

Spam - Unsolicited junk e-mail. Supposedly stands for 'Stupid Person's Annoying Message'. How appropriate!

Sponsor - To make some moolah, webmasters can place adverts on their sites. Each time you click on these adverts or banners they receive a few beans for ushering in potential customers to the sponsor's web site.

Spyware - Any software installed on your system - with or without your consent - capable of transmitting information regarding your browsing habits to market research companies. Spyware files are usually installed along with seemingly harmless shareware or freeware applications and operate in the background while you surf the net. These uninvited gremlins can be eliminated using spyware removal programs such as Ad Aware, available from Lavasoft.

STV - An acronym used in reference to movie releases. Stands for 'straight to video' i.e. movies not considered to have wide enough appeal to be shown at the cinema.

Superbit - A perfectly legitimate DVD variant endorsed by Sony Pictures. All the extra features are cut to optimize the available storage space on the disc. This allows the video and sound to be encoded at a higher bit rate, resulting in the production of superior quality movies.

SuprNova - Was at one time the largest Torrent file repository and community web site around. Shutdown kind of voluntarily in December 2004 because the gaffer, Sloncek, could hear the rapidly approaching footsteps of the MPAA who during this period mounted a major crackdown on sites facilitating the distribution of pre-release movies via the BitTorrent protocol.

Surfer Friendly (SF) - Surfer friendly sites supposedly have no blind links, pop-ups or porn banners. Not the most trustworthy self-imposed insignia - many webmasters are not opposed to tellings fibs to get you to visit their sites.

Sys Op - A System Operator is the person responsible for administrating a mainframe computer, network of computers or an online service. They often regulate access to servers, manage their contents and monitor and sustain their online status. A commonplace challenge faced by Sys Ops in the heyday of FXP groups was to keep their servers (or 'pubs' in the eyes of the uploaders) clear of illegally traded, copyright protected material.

T

Tagging - A term used in reference to the claim of ownership of a public FTP site by an FXP group. When a 'pub' is located, the group who discovered it name a directory after themselves so that other groups know not to use the space for their own uploads. This is really just common courtesy - a good example of FXP etiquette.

The Faction - A now defunct organisation composed of three of the largest release groups (Razor 1911, Class and Paradigm). They originally joined forces in 1998 in order to produce a 10 point document detailing the rules and regulations release groups were expected to follow when ripping a game. This document has now been superseded by a revised version devised by Myth, Divine, Vace, and Instinct known as the Standard Rip Rules.

Top List - A chart which lists in rank order the best sites in a particular category, worked out on the basis of votes.

Topsite - The pinnacle of the warez distribution hierarchy. Topsites are extremely fast, private FTP sites stuffed to the gills with freshly cracked software. Initially they are used to receive pre-release software supplied by computer industry insiders. When this software has been cracked, packed and tested it is placed in a 'pre' directory where it is pounced on by 'pre-ers' who race the booty to affiliate topsites. Subsequent to the awarding of credits, couriers distribute the software to dump sites and so on.

Trading - Swapping data file for file via FTP or IRC. Generally ostracized by 'the-data-wants-to-be-free' types.

Trainer - A small, executable program which resides in your task tray while you play a game. Hot keys are associated with cheat commands which, when activated, provide you with extra ammo, weapons, lives or the ability to toggle between invincible/mortal modes etc.

Trojan - Lightweight - and therefore stealthy - nasty, virus-like attachments often merged with executable files for camouflage. When executed they allow hackers to take control of the infected computers of unsuspecting web surfers and wreak havoc on a global scale. Mostly computers are commandeered and put to work like mules as part of a cumulative denial of service attack or to propagate spam. Trojans are often found latched onto files shared using peer to peer software, though can also be contracted through visiting a malignant web site via an insecure browser. They can be guarded against proactively using an up to date virus checker or a dedicated trojan remover such as The Cleaner.

Trolling - Posting controversial messages to web forums, newsgroups, mailing lists etc. with the intention of inciting smouldering arguments.

U

UBB - Shorthand for Ultimate Bulletin Board, the second most popular internet forum script available. See the bulletin board tutorial.

Undeletable Pub - An anonymous access, public FTP site where the permission attributes are set to allow uploads and downloads, but not deletions.

Unzipping - Unpacking or decompressing files stored in a compressed archive. Originally only used in connection with zip files, however, it is now commonplace to make reference to unzipping .ace, .dmg or .rar files too.

Uploading - Copying files from your computer to a remote web server or an individual's computer via a web browser, IM, IRC, peer to peer or FTP client.

URL - Stands for 'Uniform Resource Locator'. The internet address you type into the address bar of your browser in order to visit a specific web site.

Usenet - The global or collective term for the many thousands of newsgroups hosted on servers dispersed throughout the world.

V

VA - An acronym for 'various artists', a term used in reference to the MP3 release scene.

Vapourware - Conceptual software that is unlikely to ever see the light of day, or over-hyped, long-awaited software that doesn't live up to expectation.

vBulletin - A professional, PHP / MySQL message board script which has rapidly overtaken UBB in the popularity stakes - see the bulletin board tutorial.

VCD - Stands for Video Compact Disc. Essentially these are MPG movie files distributed on CD media. VCDs can be played back in compatible DVD players or using a number of software-based media players.

VLS - An acronym used in reference to the MP3 release scene. Stands for 'vinyl single', a recording consisting of just one or two tracks.

Voting - When web sites represented 'unconnected' people's most efficacious source of illegal software and other media, warez site webmasters were very keen to reach the pinnacle of top lists such as Sub List and Top 100 and would therefore do whatever it took to coerce them into voting. The more votes a site received, the higher it climbed up the top list. An elevated, prominent position resulted in more visitors, and in theory at least, more sponsor clicks, which equated to extra financial reward.

W

Warez - Illegal, counterfeit, full version software or other media either distributed freely via the internet or sold on physical media such as DVDs.

Warez Board - An online, virtual meeting place used to share links and discuss anything and everything related to warez.

White Label - Independently issued music / promotional discs distributed by unsigned bands to gain exposure. Such media can be identified by the text scrawled on their plain, white labels using a marker pen, hence the term 'white label'. Printer ink costs money, don't ya know.

WinAce - The original ACE format, archive compression / decompression tool. Now also handles all the most prevalent compressed archive files, though is eclipsed by WinRAR as it cannot be used to manipulate ISO images.

Wingate - A system through which a number of computers are permitted to access the internet via a single computer connection providing they are all networked together. The computer acting as the go-between routes all the incoming data and so functions as a proxy server as well as a firewall.

WinRAR - The number one utility used for decompressing RAR, ACE and ZIP files (amongst other lesser known compressed archive formats) and extracting the contents of ISO images. Also very useful for decompressing many archive files simultaneously - a marvelous time / RSI saver!

WinZip - The original archive compression / decompression tool. Whilst WinZip was once considered an essential component of any PC user's toolkit, today it is largely outflanked by the multi-talented WinRAR.

Won Race - References to won and lost races can often be seen adjacent to the releases listed on scene news sites. If two groups release the same game, movie or whatever, the one that is able to transfer it to their affiliate's topsites first wins the race. This doesn't necessarily mean that the winning group managed to crack or rip the release ahead of the losing group. It could simply be a reflection of their superior distribution network.

Workprint - A very early rendering of a movie leaked by the production crew. Often they contain extra scenes, which will later be cut from the final release due to time restraints or simply because the director thought they were inappropriate etc. Other defining attributes include the presence of markers used to jump back and forth between scenes, counters, studio logos, date stamps and post codes. If you compare the workprint release of a movie with the final version you may also notice changes in the soundtrack and a whole host of other more subtle modifications. While these early incarnations are highly sought after by movie enthusiasts as they offer a glimpse into the movie that could have been, they do not hold much sway on scene release sites.

X

Y

Z

Zip File - One of the most commonly used data compression formats. Archives compressed using the Zip format are assigned the extension '.zip' and can be manipulated using a multitude of freeware and shareware decompression tools.

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